Different ages of people require a different set standard for CPR ratios. For instance, a baby is different than a child, a child is different than the average adult, and the average adult is different than the elderly person. Therefore, a person’s size has much to with the way CPR is done. For instance, a Barro-chest, burly man may require a strong person to push on his chest, rather than a person who is small or doesn’t possess the capacity to push hard, fast and deep. For an elderly person, pushing hard, fast and deep may cause ribs to break, and of course, the baby or infant requires less effort, so what are the acceptable standard CPR Ratios
The anatomy of the inside of the chest cavity for all ages is essentially the same. The distance from the top of the chest to the heart is typically identical, minus birth defects, trauma or a thoracic (chest) surgical procedure. The idea is to squeeze the heart between the chest bone and the backbone to allow for artificial circulation. Typically, the compression level equals or is close to two inches which means that it pertains to all ages, give or take a couple of inches.
In the old days before the American Heart Association changed the standards due to research, compression depth and rate for the dissimilar ages were not the same. Research has shown that one or two-person CPR requires the same or a slight change. For a single rescuer performing CPR on an adult, child, infant, or neonate, the compression ratio is 30/2. The changes are minuscule but require quick reaction. For each 30 compressions, two breaths are given. However, in today’s world, giving breaths may turn out to be detrimental for the rescuer because of diseases. However, for healthcare providers, using a pocket mask or breathing device is required. The AHA does not mandate breaths from the layperson but that chest compressions at 100 to 120 per minute is started without delay.
Standard Chest Compression Ratios for Adults
When chest compressions are done at 100-120 per minute, the idea is to be exact or in-between 100 and 120. Too fast or too slow does not always provide adequate perfusion. Hence, the most important component of CPR is chest compressions. If no other rescuer arrives, single rescuer CPR must be maintained until the arrival of Emergency Medical Services. But what about two-person CPR?
Two Person CPR Approach for Compressions
Two-person CPR is accomplished in the same manner. However, there is a change when it comes to children, infants, and neonates. For instance, when another rescuer arrives to help the single rescuer with CPR on an adult, the ratio does not change. The ratio remains 30/2. When a second rescuer arrives to help with CPR on children, infants, and neonates, the ratio changes from 30/2 to 15/2. The compression debt ratio for an infant is at least one third the depth of the chest which is about 1 ½ inches or 4 cm. The depth of compression ratio for a child is at least one third the depth of the chest which is about 2 inches or 5 cm. The depth of compression ratio for an adult is at least 2 inches which is 5 cm, all with a rate of 100-120 per minute.
Techniques and Approach for Adults, Children and Infants.
When placing the hands on the chest of an adult, two hands should be used. When placing the hands on a child (depending on how big the child is) one or two hands should be used. When performing chest compressions on an infant or neonate, two fingers are used for a single rescuer, and two thumbs encircling techniques is used for two rescuers. A neonate is less than one month old. The infant is less than one year old. The child is less than eight years old. However, breast development in the females and chest hair can determine if the child is older than eight years. The elderly is fragile, and their ribs are easily broken when CPR is started. It is important to start CPR regardless of whether ribs are broken or not.
It is extremely important to allow complete recoil without removing the hands or fingers from the chest. To do so does not allow adequate artificial perfusion, which gets oxygenated blood to the brain. The importance of proper CPR with this ratio can allow for cerebral perfusion until EMS arrives. Furthermore, it is understood that there are many people untrained in the technique of CPR. Getting trained makes a difference but pushing on the chest even without training is better than nothing at all. Ultimately, understanding the science and knowing the ratios behind proper CPR makes a difference in survival.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the Correct CPR Ventilation/Compression Ratio?
The correct ventilation/compression ratio for adults is 30:2. It simply means to provide 2 rescue breaths after 30 compressions, and maintain a steady rhythm. The same is to be followed for both single and double rescuer methods. If there is an additional rescuer, the same method is to be followed, except that each person can take turns with performing the rescue breaths and the compressions without pausing either. This also enables them to rest from the physically laborious job of giving compression.
Is the Compression Ratio the Same for Children and Infants as well?
No, the compression ratio for children is 15:2. Most child and infant victims require emergency medical care due to choking or drowning. Because of this, giving more frequent rescue breaths is imperative. In case of a single rescuer, for a drowning or choking case a rescue breath for every five to ten breaths since the victim needs oxygen to be provided.
What if there is any External Devices Involved?
If an AED or Automated external defibrillator is available alternate 3-4 shocks with a minute of CPR. AEDs are designed to help untrained rescuers perform near-successful CPR. CPR should be continued till you see the patient breathing herself (chest rise and fall) or if the victim regains consciousness. Immediate care to discover the cause of the attack however should be offered to the victim, to understand the root of the problem. While practicing successful rescues on victims may not promise a hundred percent survival, it does give them another chance at life, and that chance no matter how small is deserved by everyone.