How to perform a top-to-toe assessment -

Top-to-toe assessments provide important to an ambulance or medical staff in case of emergency. If you find a casualty lying unconscious, here’s how to perform a top-to-toe assessment:

Run your hands carefully over the scalp to feel for bleeding, swelling or depression that may indicate a possible fracture.

Talk-to in both ears of the casualty to see if she responds or if she can hear. If there is blood or any clear fluid coming out from the ear, there might be damage in inside the skull.

See if the casualty is responding to light or if there is any bruising or blood in the white of the eyes.

Check the nose for the same signs as in the ear. Look for blood or clear. Also Record the rate, depth, and nature of breathing

Firstly look for any object that might be blocking the airway. Also check any wound in the mouth or irregularity in the line of the teeth. Examine the lips for burns.

The color, temperature, and state of the skin is important information to observe. For example is the skin pale, dry, blue etc. Also check the color of the lips, ears, and face.

Neck and Spine
Remove any tight clothing around the neck. Also run your fingers gently along the spine from the base of the skull downwards as far as possible, without disturbing the casualty’s position, checking for irregularity, swelling or tenderness.

Ask if the casualty can breathe deeply and note whether the chest expands evenly easily, and equally on the two sides. Gently feel the ribcage for any deformity, irregularity, tenderness or a grating sensation on breathing. Observe whether breathing causes the casualty any pain or discomfort, hook for signs of bleeding from any wounds.
Also, gently feel along both the collar bones and the shoulders for any deformity, irregularity or tenderness

Elbows and wrists
Check the movements of elbows, wrists, and fingers by asking the casualty to bend and straighten the arm at the joints. Check that the casualty can feel normally with her fingers and there are no abnormal sensations in the limbs.

Feel both sides of the hips, and gently move hit pelvis to look for signs of fracture

See if the casualty can raise each leg in turn, and to move her ankles and knees.

Finally check movement and feeling in all the toes. Look at their color grey-blue skin may indicate a circulatory disorder or cold injury.

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